Thursday, 30 April 2020

What Is - from IBM Developers

IBM Developer Advocate Sean Tracey previews a new short-form video series that will explain key technologies and concepts. Build Smart. Join a global community of developers at http://ibm.biz/IBMdeveloperYT

Available via YouTube


Enjoy!

IBM Cloud Hyper Protect - Some tasty new demos

For a little look at the things upon which my team and I are working, I give you .....


These, and more, demos on https://www.ibm.com/demos/  

Nice!

Wednesday, 29 April 2020

IBM Middleware User Community - Upcoming Events

Metrics for the win! Apr 30, 2020 from 2:00 PM to 3:00 PM (ET)

Understanding application behavior is important in any environment. The most efficient way to observe application behavior relies on metrics, key/value pairs of numerical data. This session will compare the capabilities of libraries like Micrometer, OpenTelemetry, and MicroProfile metrics. We’ll also explore how gathered data can be used to observe and understand application behavior in order to determine what should be measured. #dev-series


We will take a dive into understanding what the Reactive Streams specification is by comparing a few of the popular Java API implementations. #dev-series

Tuesday, 21 April 2020

MainframerZ meetup *online* - Mainframe skillZ at home

Join us for our 6th MainframerZ meetup on Wednesday 19th April at 17:30 BST (London). This will be our 2nd event online after the significant success of our first last month.

This event will be centred around the theme of mainframe skills that you can do at home, and will include a range of lightning talks and discussions.

We look forward to meeting new members from around the globe as well as welcoming back some of our experienced members.
Want to share something at the event? Or start a discussion? Get in touch with our organisers, we'd love to hear from you.


Wednesday, 15 April 2020

AirPods - Wax On, Wax Off

I wasn't sure whether my hearing was on the blink, or whether my AirPods gen. 2 were starting to fail

I was finding that all of podcasts, including @podfeet dulcet tones were mainly coming out in the right-hand AirPod, with way less volume in the left-hand AirPod

I thought I'd cleaned them both thoroughly ....

Thankfully, the problem was (alas) earwax, and was resolved by an even more robust clean, specifically using the pointy end of a plastic tooth pick to gently unblock the grills AND the teeny-tiny little hole


The thing that made the most difference was the little hole ....

One thing that helped diagnose the issue was the ability to change the balance on my iPhone, via Settings -> Accessibility -> Audio/Visual


When I posted this to a couple of Slack teams, one of my network said : -

Interesting diagnostic technique for what turned out to be a physical problem. I think that hole is how it listens for ambient noise, even though these aren't the noise cancelling ones. If I recall correctly it's for your voice going to your caller.

which ties up with my own findings.

Someone else said much the same: -

This is a common problem with hearing aids.  I had to pay $350 to replace mine due to that problem among other issues last week. (edited) 

So now I know ......

Saturday, 11 April 2020

VNC Viewer on macOS - Who knew ?

Whilst helping a colleague with a VNC-related question, I discovered that macOS has built-in support for VNC, via the Finder -> Connect to Server option.

VNC URLs look like this: -

vnc://192.168.1.19:5901

Alternatively, one can start the same VNC Viewer client from the command-line, via Terminal, and this command: -

open vnc://ubuntu:5901

For the record, I installed TigerVNC on my Ubuntu box: -

dpkg --list | grep tiger

ii  tigervnc-common                            1.7.0+dfsg-8ubuntu2                              amd64        Virtual network computing; Common software needed by servers
ii  tigervnc-standalone-server                 1.7.0+dfsg-8ubuntu2                              amd64        Standalone virtual network computing server

with this xstartup : -

cat ~/.vnc/xstartup 


#!/bin/sh

export XKL_XMODMAP_DISABLE=1
unset SESSION_MANAGER
unset DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS

[ -x /etc/vnc/xstartup ] && exec /etc/vnc/xstartup
[ -r $HOME/.Xresources ] && xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
xsetroot -solid grey
vncconfig -iconic &

gnome-session &
nautilus &

with the VNC Server's password encoded in: -

-rw------- 1 dave dave 8 Apr 10 15:19 /home/dave/.vnc/passwd

The thing that I initially missed, but then discovered, was that, by default, TigerVNC automatically starts assuming that all client connections will be local i.e. only from the box running the VNC Server itself !!!

This is easily mitigated when one starts the VNC Server: -

vncserver --localhost no

New 'ubuntu18:1 (dave)' desktop at :1 on machine ubuntu18

Starting applications specified in /home/dave/.vnc/xstartup
Log file is /home/dave/.vnc/ubuntu18:1.log

Use xtigervncviewer -SecurityTypes VncAuth,TLSVnc -passwd /home/dave/.vnc/passwd ubuntu18:1 to connect to the VNC server.


with the .PID file: -

cat ~/.vnc/ubuntu18\:1.pid 

7589

and the log file: -

cat ~/.vnc/ubuntu18\:1.log 

Xvnc TigerVNC 1.7.0 - built Dec  5 2017 09:25:01
Copyright (C) 1999-2016 TigerVNC Team and many others (see README.txt)
See http://www.tigervnc.org for information on TigerVNC.
Underlying X server release 11905000, The X.Org Foundation


Sat Apr 11 15:56:09 2020
 vncext:      VNC extension running!
 vncext:      Listening for VNC connections on all interface(s), port 5901
 vncext:      created VNC server for screen 0

For reference, this was a useful insight into TigerVNC

Friday, 10 April 2020

Tinkering with Docker in Bash with a side-order of Sed and Awk

Just tidying up some documentation ....

Want to list all of the containers running on your Docker server ?

docker ps -a | sed 1d | awk '{print $1}'

6153d5b70852
5936a4a0179b
3a11d49a5230
af8705a70abe
05475e542e5d
33648fe5e9d9
d1995a3d141f
d39f9ecc3058
e6310ec76d1f

Why is this useful ?

Because one can then use this inside a script to, say, inspect all containers.

Here's an example: -

for i in `docker ps -a | sed 1d | awk '{print $1}'`; do docker inspect $i; done | grep IPv4Address

                        "IPv4Address": "10.23.2.72"
                        "IPv4Address": "10.23.2.50"
                        "IPv4Address": "10.23.2.76"
                        "IPv4Address": "10.23.2.80"
                        "IPv4Address": "10.23.2.55"
                        "IPv4Address": "10.23.2.64"

or, using jq: -

for i in `docker ps -a | sed 1d | awk '{print $1}'`; do docker inspect $i | jq .[].NetworkSettings.Networks.staticIP.IPAddress; done

"10.23.2.72"
"10.23.2.50"
"10.23.2.76"
"10.23.2.80"
"10.23.2.55"
"10.23.2.64"

for i in `docker ps -a | sed 1d | awk '{print $1}'`; do docker inspect $i | jq .[].NetworkSettings.Networks.bridge.IPAddress; done

"172.31.0.4"
"172.31.0.2"
"172.31.0.3"

PS I've been getting into jq recently, and jqplay.org has been an invaluable resource ...


Docker and DNS - it's all in the network

Last month, my team and I worked through a problem that a client was seeing building Docker images.

Specifically, they were able to build but NOT push the images to Docker Hub.

The main symptom that they were seeing was: -

you are not authorized to perform this operation: server returned 401.

which equates to HTTP 401.

Now we went down all sorts of paths to resolve this, including trying different Docker Hub credentials, changing the parent image ( as specified in the FROM tag within the Dockerfile ) to the most generic - and easily available - image: -

FROM alpine:3.9

but to no avail.

Long story very very short, but it transpired that the DNS configuration was ... misconfigured.

But in a very very subtle way ...

For this particular environment, the /etc/resolv.conf file was being used for DNS resolution, rather than, say, dnsmasq or systemd-resolved.

Which is absolutely fine.

This is what they had: -

nameserver 8.8.8.8
nameserver 4.4.4.4

which, at first glance, looks absolutely fine ....

Given that the issues were with the docker push and that the error was ALWAYS HTTP401 Not Authorised, we came to the conclusion that the issue arose when the Docker CLI was trying to connect to the Docker Notary Service as we'd enforced Docker Content Trust via DOCKER_CONTENT_TRUST=1.

We further worked out that there was some kind of timeout / latency issue, and were able to see that the connection FROM the Ubuntu box upon which we were running TO, specifically https://notary.docker.io was taking the longest time to resolve/connect. The traceroute command was definitely our friend here.

It appears that, by default, the Docker CLI has a built-in timeout of 30 seconds, which isn't user-configurable.

After much trial and a lot of error, we realised that the DNS / resolv.conf configuration was wrong ...

Specifically, that the Docker CLI would try and resolve the IP address for notary.docker.io via the first DNS server, which is Google's own 8.8.8.8 service, but that this would take longer than 30 seconds.

At which point, the Docker CLI would try again, but against the other DNS server, 4.4.4.4, which wouldn't respond particularly quickly.

It transpired that 4.4.4.4 is actually an ISP in the USA, namely Level 3, and ... the client was not in the USA ....

Therefore, the connectivity from their network to the Level 3 network was highly latent, probably because Level 3 focus upon serving their local US customers, rather than treating traffic from geographically remote hosts less favourably.

Now why did we miss this ?

Because 4.4.4.4 looks quite similar to 8.8.4.4 which is Google's second public DNS server, as per Google Public DNS 

All of us tech-heads looked at resolv.conf many many many times, and missed this subtlety.

Once we changed it to 8.8.4.4 all was well: -

nameserver 8.8.8.8
nameserver 8.8.4.4

The morals of the story ....
  1. Never assume 
  2. Check everything
  3. Check everything AGAIN

What fun!

Hmmm, cURL, why did you stop responding ?

So, a few weeks back, I was working on a Bash script that uses cURL to drive a set of REST APIs, and parses the responses, separating out the HTTP response code e.g. 200, 201, 301, 403 etc. from the actual response body.

This allowed me to write conditional logic based upon the return code, using IF/ELSE/FI.

This worked, and did the job for which it was intended, and everyone was happy .....

Fast forward a few weeks, and ... the script starts breaking ...

When I dig into the WHAT and WHY, I realise that the HTTP response codes are no longer being parsed from the response, even though the response still includes them.

After some serious digging around, including a major refactor of my code, I think I've worked out what went wrong ....

I don't necessarily know WHY, but I'm gonna blame the REST APIs, working on the assumption that my code didn't change, and therefore something outside my control did ....

At one point, I even wondered whether Bash on my Mac had changed, perhaps as a result of the latest macOS updates, but I was then able to reproduce the problem on an Ubuntu VM, so kinda suspect that Bash is NOT the villain.

Rather than sharing the full script here, I've written a prototype that demonstrates the problem, and then the solution.

So here's the bit of code that fails: -

curl_output=$(curl -s -k http://www.bbc.com --write-out "|%{http_code}")

IFS='|' read -r RESPONSE HTTP_CODE <<< "$curl_output"

echo -e "Response is" $RESPONSE "\n"

echo -e "HTTP Code is" $HTTP_CODE "\n"

Now, to break it down a bit, we've got four lines of code; the first merely calls the BBC website, which actually responds with HTTP 301 ( redirect ).

This grabs the HTTP response code, and appends it to the end of the string, captured within the curl_output variable, prepended by a vertical bar ( | ) separator.

For reference, the HTTP response code is obtained using the cURL parameter --write-out "|%{http_code}".

The second line of code does two things: -

i. Sets the Internal File Separator (IFS) to the vertical bar ( | )
ii. Parses the curl_output variable, using the read command ( which is internal to Bash ), parsing the content of the variable into two sub-variables, RESPONSE and HTTP_CODE, using IFS to separate the two

The third and fourth lines of code merely output the content of the two sub-variables; I'm using echo -e merely to allow me to add the "\n" instruction to the end of the output, to make it look nice.

When I run the script, this is what I see: -

~/curlTest.sh 

Curl Output is   301 Moved Permanently

Moved Permanently

The document has moved here.
|301 

First Pass
==========

Response is  

HTTP Code is 

which demonstrates the problem that I was seeing with my real REST APIs.

Note that the output from the cURL command is returned, including the HTTP 301 response code: -

Curl Output is   301 Moved Permanently

Moved Permanently

The document has moved here.
|301 

but also note that, whilst the HTTP response is partially returned within the RESPONSE sub-variable, the HTTP return code is NOT returned via the HTTP_CODE variable.

There's a clue in this behaviour but it took me a while to find it.

I went down a rabbit hole for a while, replacing the use of IFS and the read command, with awk, because who doesn't love awk. This works BUT it does require one to know precisely how many columns are being returned in the output from the cURL command i.e. if I use  awk '{print $3}' I need to be sure that the thing I want will always be in column 3.

But, back to the root cause .... 

Notice that, in the above example, the value of the RESPONSE sub-variable is only PART of the actual curl_output variable, specifically the first piece of HTML: -


This gave me a clue; for some reason, the read command was treating that first element as the entirety of the response, and not seeing the vertical bar separator, meaning that IFS was, in essence, being ignored, meaning that the HTTP_CODE variable never gets populated.

So there's something between: -


and the next element of the curl_output variable: -


such as a space character ( 0x20 ).

I even resorted to using the hexdump and hexedit commands ( via brew install hexedit on macOS and apt-get install -y hexedit on Ubuntu ), to confirm what I was seeing: -

00000000   43 75 72 6C  20 4F 75 74  70 75 74 20  69 73 20 20  3C 21 44 4F  43 54 59 50  45 20 48 54  4D 4C 20 50  55 42 4C 49  43 20 22 2D  2F 2F 49 45  Curl Output is  
0000002C   54 46 2F 2F  44 54 44 20  48 54 4D 4C  20 32 2E 30  2F 2F 45 4E  22 3E 20 3C  68 74 6D 6C  3E 3C 68 65  61 64 3E 20  3C 74 69 74  6C 65 3E 33  TF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN"> 3</font></div> <div> <font face="Courier New, Courier, monospace">00000058   30 31 20 4D  6F 76 65 64  20 50 65 72  6D 61 6E 65  6E 74 6C 79  3C 2F 74 69  74 6C 65 3E  20 3C 2F 68  65 61 64 3E  3C 62 6F 64  79 3E 20 3C  01 Moved Permanently <
00000084   68 31 3E 4D  6F 76 65 64  20 50 65 72  6D 61 6E 65  6E 74 6C 79  3C 2F 68 31  3E 20 3C 70  3E 54 68 65  20 64 6F 63  75 6D 65 6E  74 20 68 61  h1>Moved Permanently
The document ha
000000B0   73 20 6D 6F  76 65 64 20  3C 61 20 68  72 65 66 3D  22 68 74 74  70 73 3A 2F  2F 77 77 77  2E 62 62 63  2E 63 6F 6D  2F 22 3E 68  65 72 65 3C  s moved here<
000000DC   2F 61 3E 2E  3C 2F 70 3E  20 3C 2F 62  6F 64 79 3E  3C 2F 68 74  6D 6C 3E 20  7C 33 30 31  20 0A 0A                                            /a>.
|301 ..

( For reference, the ASCII codes are documented here ).

Interestingly, there are multiple space characters ( 0x20 ) in the output, between DOCTYPE and HTML and PUBLIC etc. and yet ......

I'm not 100% sure why read would treat them differently but ..... c'est la vie.

This led me down a different path, reading up on the read command ( apologies for the punning ) led me to the -d parameter: -

-d delim continue until the first character of DELIM is read, rather than newline

This allowed me to tell read to effectively ignore space characters, rather than delimiting at the "first" space.

Thus I changed my script: -

IFS='|' read -d '' -r RESPONSE HTTP_CODE <<< "$curl_output"
echo -e "Response is" $RESPONSE "\n"
echo -e "HTTP Code is" $HTTP_CODE "\n"

adding in -d ''

Having created a script that does both types of read, one without -d and one with -d, this is what I see: -

Curl Output is   301 Moved Permanently

Moved Permanently

The document has moved here.
|301 

First Pass
==========

Response is  

HTTP Code is 

Second Pass
===========

Response is 301 Moved Permanently

Moved Permanently

The document has moved here.
 

HTTP Code is 301 

Note that, in the second pass, I see the entirety of the curl_output variable, specifically that before the vertical bar ( | ) separator in the RESPONSE sub-variable and, more importantly, I see the HTTP response code ( 301 ) in the HTTP_CODE sub-variable.

This is the entire script: -

#!/bin/bash

curl_output=$(curl -s -k http://www.bbc.com --write-out "|%{http_code}")

echo -e "Curl Output is " $curl_output "\n"

echo -e "First Pass"
echo -e "==========\n"

IFS='|' read -r RESPONSE HTTP_CODE <<< "$curl_output"
echo -e "Response is" $RESPONSE "\n"
echo -e "HTTP Code is" $HTTP_CODE "\n"

echo -e "Second Pass"
echo -e "===========\n"

IFS='|' read -d '' -r RESPONSE HTTP_CODE <<< "$curl_output"
echo -e "Response is" $RESPONSE "\n"
echo -e "HTTP Code is" $HTTP_CODE "\n"

Further more, whilst writing this post, with this little prototype script, I discovered something else that validated my original hypothesis, that the REST APIs had changed between the original script working and breaking ....

Recognising that the BBC homepage isn't really a good example of a REST API, even though cURL doesn't really care, I changed my script to use a "real" REST REST API ( I am using the Dummy REST API Example ).


When I run my script, as per the above, I get this: -

Curl Output is  {"status":"success","data":[{"id":"1","employee_name":"Tiger Nixon","employee_salary":"320800","employee_age":"61","profile_image":""},{"id":"2","employee_name":"Garrett Winters","employee_salary":"170750","employee_age":"63","profile_image":""},{"id":"3","employee_name":"Ashton Cox","employee_salary":"86000","employee_age":"66","profile_image":""},{"id":"4","employee_name":"Cedric Kelly","employee_salary":"433060","employee_age":"22","profile_image":""},{"id":"5","employee_name":"Airi Satou","employee_salary":"162700","employee_age":"33","profile_image":""},{"id":"6","employee_name":"Brielle Williamson","employee_salary":"372000","employee_age":"61","profile_image":""},{"id":"7","employee_name":"Herrod Chandler","employee_salary":"137500","employee_age":"59","profile_image":""},{"id":"8","employee_name":"Rhona Davidson","employee_salary":"327900","employee_age":"55","profile_image":""},{"id":"9","employee_name":"Colleen Hurst","employee_salary":"205500","employee_age":"39","profile_image":""},{"id":"10","employee_name":"Sonya Frost","employee_salary":"103600","employee_age":"23","profile_image":""},{"id":"11","employee_name":"Jena Gaines","employee_salary":"90560","employee_age":"30","profile_image":""},{"id":"12","employee_name":"Quinn Flynn","employee_salary":"342000","employee_age":"22","profile_image":""},{"id":"13","employee_name":"Charde Marshall","employee_salary":"470600","employee_age":"36","profile_image":""},{"id":"14","employee_name":"Haley Kennedy","employee_salary":"313500","employee_age":"43","profile_image":""},{"id":"15","employee_name":"Tatyana Fitzpatrick","employee_salary":"385750","employee_age":"19","profile_image":""},{"id":"16","employee_name":"Michael Silva","employee_salary":"198500","employee_age":"66","profile_image":""},{"id":"17","employee_name":"Paul Byrd","employee_salary":"725000","employee_age":"64","profile_image":""},{"id":"18","employee_name":"Gloria Little","employee_salary":"237500","employee_age":"59","profile_image":""},{"id":"19","employee_name":"Bradley Greer","employee_salary":"132000","employee_age":"41","profile_image":""},{"id":"20","employee_name":"Dai Rios","employee_salary":"217500","employee_age":"35","profile_image":""},{"id":"21","employee_name":"Jenette Caldwell","employee_salary":"345000","employee_age":"30","profile_image":""},{"id":"22","employee_name":"Yuri Berry","employee_salary":"675000","employee_age":"40","profile_image":""},{"id":"23","employee_name":"Caesar Vance","employee_salary":"106450","employee_age":"21","profile_image":""},{"id":"24","employee_name":"Doris Wilder","employee_salary":"85600","employee_age":"23","profile_image":""}]}|200 

First Pass
==========

Response is {"status":"success","data":[{"id":"1","employee_name":"Tiger Nixon","employee_salary":"320800","employee_age":"61","profile_image":""},{"id":"2","employee_name":"Garrett Winters","employee_salary":"170750","employee_age":"63","profile_image":""},{"id":"3","employee_name":"Ashton Cox","employee_salary":"86000","employee_age":"66","profile_image":""},{"id":"4","employee_name":"Cedric Kelly","employee_salary":"433060","employee_age":"22","profile_image":""},{"id":"5","employee_name":"Airi Satou","employee_salary":"162700","employee_age":"33","profile_image":""},{"id":"6","employee_name":"Brielle Williamson","employee_salary":"372000","employee_age":"61","profile_image":""},{"id":"7","employee_name":"Herrod Chandler","employee_salary":"137500","employee_age":"59","profile_image":""},{"id":"8","employee_name":"Rhona Davidson","employee_salary":"327900","employee_age":"55","profile_image":""},{"id":"9","employee_name":"Colleen Hurst","employee_salary":"205500","employee_age":"39","profile_image":""},{"id":"10","employee_name":"Sonya Frost","employee_salary":"103600","employee_age":"23","profile_image":""},{"id":"11","employee_name":"Jena Gaines","employee_salary":"90560","employee_age":"30","profile_image":""},{"id":"12","employee_name":"Quinn Flynn","employee_salary":"342000","employee_age":"22","profile_image":""},{"id":"13","employee_name":"Charde Marshall","employee_salary":"470600","employee_age":"36","profile_image":""},{"id":"14","employee_name":"Haley Kennedy","employee_salary":"313500","employee_age":"43","profile_image":""},{"id":"15","employee_name":"Tatyana Fitzpatrick","employee_salary":"385750","employee_age":"19","profile_image":""},{"id":"16","employee_name":"Michael Silva","employee_salary":"198500","employee_age":"66","profile_image":""},{"id":"17","employee_name":"Paul Byrd","employee_salary":"725000","employee_age":"64","profile_image":""},{"id":"18","employee_name":"Gloria Little","employee_salary":"237500","employee_age":"59","profile_image":""},{"id":"19","employee_name":"Bradley Greer","employee_salary":"132000","employee_age":"41","profile_image":""},{"id":"20","employee_name":"Dai Rios","employee_salary":"217500","employee_age":"35","profile_image":""},{"id":"21","employee_name":"Jenette Caldwell","employee_salary":"345000","employee_age":"30","profile_image":""},{"id":"22","employee_name":"Yuri Berry","employee_salary":"675000","employee_age":"40","profile_image":""},{"id":"23","employee_name":"Caesar Vance","employee_salary":"106450","employee_age":"21","profile_image":""},{"id":"24","employee_name":"Doris Wilder","employee_salary":"85600","employee_age":"23","profile_image":""}]} 

HTTP Code is 200 

Second Pass
===========

Response is {"status":"success","data":[{"id":"1","employee_name":"Tiger Nixon","employee_salary":"320800","employee_age":"61","profile_image":""},{"id":"2","employee_name":"Garrett Winters","employee_salary":"170750","employee_age":"63","profile_image":""},{"id":"3","employee_name":"Ashton Cox","employee_salary":"86000","employee_age":"66","profile_image":""},{"id":"4","employee_name":"Cedric Kelly","employee_salary":"433060","employee_age":"22","profile_image":""},{"id":"5","employee_name":"Airi Satou","employee_salary":"162700","employee_age":"33","profile_image":""},{"id":"6","employee_name":"Brielle Williamson","employee_salary":"372000","employee_age":"61","profile_image":""},{"id":"7","employee_name":"Herrod Chandler","employee_salary":"137500","employee_age":"59","profile_image":""},{"id":"8","employee_name":"Rhona Davidson","employee_salary":"327900","employee_age":"55","profile_image":""},{"id":"9","employee_name":"Colleen Hurst","employee_salary":"205500","employee_age":"39","profile_image":""},{"id":"10","employee_name":"Sonya Frost","employee_salary":"103600","employee_age":"23","profile_image":""},{"id":"11","employee_name":"Jena Gaines","employee_salary":"90560","employee_age":"30","profile_image":""},{"id":"12","employee_name":"Quinn Flynn","employee_salary":"342000","employee_age":"22","profile_image":""},{"id":"13","employee_name":"Charde Marshall","employee_salary":"470600","employee_age":"36","profile_image":""},{"id":"14","employee_name":"Haley Kennedy","employee_salary":"313500","employee_age":"43","profile_image":""},{"id":"15","employee_name":"Tatyana Fitzpatrick","employee_salary":"385750","employee_age":"19","profile_image":""},{"id":"16","employee_name":"Michael Silva","employee_salary":"198500","employee_age":"66","profile_image":""},{"id":"17","employee_name":"Paul Byrd","employee_salary":"725000","employee_age":"64","profile_image":""},{"id":"18","employee_name":"Gloria Little","employee_salary":"237500","employee_age":"59","profile_image":""},{"id":"19","employee_name":"Bradley Greer","employee_salary":"132000","employee_age":"41","profile_image":""},{"id":"20","employee_name":"Dai Rios","employee_salary":"217500","employee_age":"35","profile_image":""},{"id":"21","employee_name":"Jenette Caldwell","employee_salary":"345000","employee_age":"30","profile_image":""},{"id":"22","employee_name":"Yuri Berry","employee_salary":"675000","employee_age":"40","profile_image":""},{"id":"23","employee_name":"Caesar Vance","employee_salary":"106450","employee_age":"21","profile_image":""},{"id":"24","employee_name":"Doris Wilder","employee_salary":"85600","employee_age":"23","profile_image":""}]} 

HTTP Code is 200 

Yes, it works perfectly in both cases.

In other words, a real REST API that's returning JSON doesn't seem to break my script, regardless of whether I use read -d '' or not.

Which is nice.

However, I learned a lot whilst digging into this, both to fix the actual script AND to write this post.

And ....

EVERY DAY IS A SCHOOL DAY

Modernize a monolithic Node.js application into a microservices architecture using IBM Cloud Pak for Applications

From one of my IBM colleagues, we have this: - This tutorial shows how to transform a traditional monolithic core banking application, which...